Buck Depositing Tarsal Musk on Ground Scrape

With all four hooves on its ground scrape, this buck is pressing its tufted tarsal glands together (located on inner surfaces of its hind legs) to squeeze out musk. The buck is also urinating over the surfaces of these glands to carry the musk to the ground. Some bucks do what appears to be a hula dance while doing this to squeeze additional musk from their tarsal glands. Dominant bucks also rub acrid scalp musk oozing from glands slightly below the bases of their antlers on overhanging branches. The primary purpose of this is to mark its breeding range with easily seen, easily smelled markers that warn other bucks to keep away. All antlered bucks do this before breeding begins but within a short period of time, dominant bucks temporarily evict all other antlered bucks from their breeding ranges to assure exclusive breeding of does in heat.

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